Lobola / Roora

Lobola / Roora is the customary token paid by the groom-to-be when he is about to marry his bride- to- be to his in-laws. Paying the bride price or roora is an acceptable way in the Zimbabwean culture for a groom to ask for his bride’s hand in marriage. Also, this token is for appreciation to the bride’s parents for raising the bride-to-be and to unite the two different families. Bride price or Roora is split into categories eg makandinzwanani, matekenya ndebvu, kunhonga, kupinda mumusha and rusambo. Some of these categories may not appear on every list depending on culture and religion of the families. [1] The payment of lobola is common in the Southern African Region in countries like Malawi, Kenya, Zambia, South Africa and Botswana.

The Meaning and Significance of Lobola

According to the English usage ‘dowry’ is the gift of money, goods or both, offered by the bride or bride’s family towards establishment of her household, whereas a bride-price is a marriage payment made by a prospective husband or more often, by his family to the family of the bride.

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As a link between two families, lobola negotiation is a tradition that was implemented in the old days where a man pays the family of his fiancé for her hand in marriage. Although it is practised differently today, in historical times a man would pay much more for a virgin and less for a woman who had a child out of wedlock. Today, prices are set according to how well-mannered and educated the bride-to-be is. The more educated she is, the more expensive the lobola will be. Other factors also include the relative wealth and status of the family the prospective groom wishes to marry into, i.e. a young woman from a royal family would be much pricier than that of an ordinary family who may be known as “commoners”. However, it should be noted royal lobola and marriage is much more complicat complicated and these are often pre-arranged, to the exclusion of choice from either groom or bride. Traditionally, lobola usually amounted to eight heads of cattle, but today the value of each cattle head forms part of the overall negotiation. Prices of lobola can be anything from R25,000 to R100,000, and this is solely determined by the bride’s family according to what they think their daughter is worth. The primary purpose of lobola is to build relations between the respective families, as marriage is seen to be more than just a union between two individuals. The relationship is seen as life-long and in some cases, even after the death of the groom. The widow then, in a way, is bound to the groom’s family forever, especially if there were children that are born to the marriage.

Unfortunately, there can be a downside. This process can be abused and handled incorrectly; it can be torturous, and divide rather than unite families. One example of this, the negotiations are usually handled by the extended male family members of the respective families, to the absolute exclusion of any females (at least in Xhosa culture ) .

Paying the Bride Price

For centuries, the tribes of Southern Africa have practiced lobola — paying a bride price to ensure a union between two tribes, similar to the dowry’s of Western Civilization. With one exception — lobola is paid in cows, and is paid to the bride’s family.

Historically, this enabled the two tribes to be allied in marriage, ensuring support and protection. In modern society, it brings the two families together, shows that the groom is capable of supporting his bride, and that the bride is valued by both families.

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